TVs History

television (n.)

1907, as a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires; formed in English or borrowed from French télévision, from tele- + vision.

Television is not impossible in theory. In practice it would be very costly without being capable of serious application. But we do not want that. On that day when it will be possible to accelerate our methods of telephotography by at least ten times, which does not appear to be impossible in the future, we shall arrive at television with a hundred telegraph wires. Then the problem of sight at a distance will without doubt cease to be a chimera. ["Telegraphing Pictures" in "Windsor Magazine," 1907]
Other proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote (1880) and televista (1904). The technology was developed in the 1920s and '30s. Nativized in German as Fernsehen. Shortened form TV is from 1948. Meaning "a television set" is from 1941. Meaning "television as a medium" is from 1927.

Television is the first truly democratic culture -- the first culture available to everyone and entirely governed by what the people want. The most terrifying thing is what people do want. [Clive Barnes, "New York Times," Dec. 30, 1969]

Sony Founder Masaru Ibuka's New Year's Dream Comes True

The Launch of Sony's TV Business

At the beginning of 1959, Sony founder (and President at the time) Masaru Ibuka spoke about his New Year's dream for a transistor TV in a magazine interview. Japan's first transistor radio had gone on sale only four years earlier. The next target was a transistor TV.

Ibuka spoke of it as a dream, but in fact things were already taking shape behind the scenes. Steady progress had already been made toward realizing that dream. Transistors with enough display power to be useful for TVs were comparably more difficult to create than transistors for radios, but Sony had perfected these special transistors the year before, in 1958, and work on developing a transistor TV was already underway.

Development accelerated sharply from the beginning of 1959. The first prototype was completed in April and numerous improvements and design studies were carried out. On December 25, Ibuka's New Year's dream came true with the announcement of Sony's first TV---the world's first direct-view TV. When it went on sale in May 1960, the TV8-301 8-inch portable transistor TV launched Sony's TV business.

As it happened, a group of market researchers representing US TV manufacturers visited Japan when the transistor TV was under development. Ibuka asked them whether they thought small TVs would sell or not. To a man, they said they would fail.

Looking back on this later, Ibuka said that it was common practice in the US to plan new products on the basis of market research, but it was also possible to carry out market research for the first time by actually putting something on the market. Since then, he said, he believed new products always involved market creation, too. "I'm now firmly convinced that brand new products must always create new markets."

Two years later in 1962, the TV5-303---which was even smaller than the TV8-301---became a huge hit in the US.

Early Electronic Television

General Electric Porta Color

Paul Pelczynski, who was a project engineer for the development of this set, sent us this:

General Electric Co., in 1966 introduced an 11 inch portable color receiver called "Porta Color". It incorporated the first on the market CRT with an in-line gun configuration, used vacuum tubes (GE Compactrons) and had a weight of only 24 pounds. At the peak of demand, 2000 sets were produced a day. Production lasted until the late 1970s. A solid state version was introduced later.



In 1959 M. M. (John) Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs achieved the first successful insulated-gate field-effect transistor (FET), which had been long anticipated by Lilienfeld, Heil, Shockley and others (1926 Milestone) by overcoming the "surface states" that blocked electric fields from penetrating into the semiconductor material. Investigating thermally grown silicon-dioxide layers, they found these states could be markedly reduced at the interface between the silicon and its oxide in a sandwich comprising layers of metal (M - gate), oxide (O - insulation), and silicon (S - semiconductor) - thus the name MOSFET, popularly known as MOS. As their device was slow and addressed no pressing needs of the telephone system, it was not pursued further. In a 1961 memo, however, Kahng pointed out its potential "ease of fabrication and the possibility of application in integrated circuits." But researchers at Fairchild and RCA did recognize these advantages. In 1960 Karl Zaininger and Charles Meuller fabricated an MOS transistor at RCA and C.T. Sah of Fairchild built an MOS-controlled tetrode. Fred Heiman and Steven Hofstein followed in 1962 with an experimental 16-transistor integrated device at RCA.

The MOS transistor conducting region is either p-type (making it a "p-channel" device) or n-type ("n-channel" device) material. The latter are faster than p-channel but are more difficult to make. MOS devices hit the commercial market in 1964. General Microelectronics (GME 1004) and Fairchild (FI 100) offered p-channel devices for logic and switching applications; RCA introduced an n-channel transistor (3N98) for amplifying signals. Because of their smaller size and lower power consumption than bipolar devices, over 99 percent of microchips produced today use MOS transistors. Achieving such ubiquity took decades of effort. (1964 Milestone)

LG Electronics expects the OLED TV market to gradually replace the LED TV market

LG Electronics reported their financial results for Q4 2013 and the Korean company doubled its operating profits compared to last year. LG reports a good quarter in its TV business, but the mobile unit reported a loss (partly blamed on marketing spending) even though they sold 13.2 million phones which is 50% higher than in Q3 2012.
We already know that LG thinks that 2014 will mark the beginning of a "rapid shift" to new 4K and OLED technologies. Earlier this month LG estimated that global OLED TV sales will reach 30,000 to 50,000 in 2014. LGD's Gen-8 OLED fab should begin producing panels in the second half of 2014 with a monthly capacity of 26,000 subtrates - or about 150,000 55" OLED TVs.

Television History and the Cathode Ray Tube

Electronic television was based on the development of the cathode ray tube.

The development of electronic television systems was based on the development of the cathode ray tube (CRT). A cathode ray tube aka picture tube was found in all electronic television sets up until the invention of the less bulky LCD screens.

A cathode is a terminal or electrode at which electrons enter a system, such as an electrolytic cell or an electron tube.
A cathode ray is a stream of electrons leaving the negative electrode, or cathode, in a discharge tube (an electron tube that contains gas or vapor at low pressure), or emitted by a heated filament in certain electron tubes.
A vacuum tube is an electron tube consisting of a sealed glass or metal enclosure from which the air has been withdrawn.
A cathode ray tube or CRT is a specialized vacuum tube in which images are produced when an electron beam strikes a phosphorescent surface.
Besides television sets, cathode ray tubes are used in computer monitors, automated teller machines, video game machines, video cameras, oscilloscopes and radar displays.

The first cathode ray tube scanning device was invented by the German scientist Karl Ferdinand Braun in 1897. Braun introduced a CRT with a fluorescent screen, known as the cathode ray oscilloscope. The screen would emit a visible light when struck by a beam of electrons.

In 1907, the Russian scientist Boris Rosing (who worked with Vladimir Zworykin) used a CRT in the receiver of a television system that at the camera end made use of mirror-drum scanning. Rosing transmitted crude geometrical patterns onto the television screen and was the first inventor to do so using a CRT.

Modern phosphor screens using multiple beams of electrons have allowed CRTs to display millions of colors.

A cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube that produces images when its phosphorescent surface is struck by electron beams.

German, Heinrich Geissler invents the Geissler tube, created using his mercury pump this was the first good evacuated (of air) vacuum tube later modified by Sir William Crookes.

German mathematician and physicist, Julius Plucker experiments with invisible cathode rays. Cathode rays were first identified by Julius Plucker.

Englishmen, Sir William Crookes was the first person to confirm the existence of cathode rays by displaying them, with his invention of the Crookes tube, a crude prototype for all future cathode ray tubes.

German, Karl Ferdinand Braun invents the CRT oscilloscope - the Braun Tube was the forerunner of today's television and radar tubes.

Vladimir Kosma Zworykin invented a cathode ray tube called the kinescope - for use with a primitive television system.

Allen B. Du Mont made the first commercially practical and durable CRT for television.
TVs History TVs History Reviewed by bsm on October 29, 2019 Rating: 5

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