Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroups and languages family



The E1b1b lineage with the Afro-Asiatic languages

The most commonly cited genetic marker in recent decades has been the Y chromosome, which is passed from father to son along paternal lines in un-mixed form, and therefore gives a relatively clear definition of one human line of descent from common ancestors.Frequency of haplogroup E1b1b in select Afro-Asiatic speakers
Several branches of humanity's Y DNA family tree have been proposed as having an association with the spread of Afroasiatic languages.
1. Haplogroup E1b1b is thought to have originated in Horn of Africa. In general, Afroasiatic speaking populations have relatively high frequencies of this haplogroup, with the notable exception of Chadic speaking populations. Christopher Ehret and Shomarka Keita have suggested that the geography of the E1b1b lineage coincides with the distribution of Afroasiatic languages.[1]
2. Haplogroup J1c3 (Y-DNA), formally known as "J1e", is actually a more common paternal lineage than E1b1b in most Semiticspeaking populations, but this is associated with Middle Eastern origins and has apparently been spread from there after the original dispersion of Afroasiatic.[2] 

Afroasiatic languages tree

Phylogeny of E1b1b

Phylogeny of E1b1b and Afroasiatic languages

the Phylogeny of the E1b1b lineage coincides with the Afroasiatic languages tree
v32: the highest frequencies in the three Cushitic-speaking groups: the Borana from Kenya (71.4%), the Oromo from Ethiopia (32.0%), and the Somali (52.2%). 

The Afroasiatic languages, as they are distributed today and  E1b1b Contour Map .

Semitic languages and  E-M123

Semitic languages tree

Phylogeny of E-M123

The Phylogeny of the E-M123 lineage coincides with the Semitic languages tree

Shen et al. found:
20% of E-M123 in Libyan Jews
12% of E-M123 in Ethiopian Jews
10% of E-M123 in Ashkenazi Jews
10% of E-M123 in Yemeni Jews

2009
Hammer et al. found:
10% of E-M123 in Israelite Jews
5% of E-M123 in Cohanim Jews


The Semitic languages, as they are distributed today and E-M123 Contour Map .


Phylogeny of R1a and Indo-European languages

Ancient DNA testing has confirmed the presence of haplogroup R1a-M417 in samples  from Tocharian mummies (2000 BCE) in Northwest China
According to Underhill (2014), the downstream R1a-M417 subclade diversified into Z282 and Z93 circa 5,800 years ago. Even though R1a occurs as the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup among populations speaking a wide variety of languages such as Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Dravidian, Turkic and Finno-Ugric, the question of the origins of R1a1a is relevant to the ongoing debate concerning the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-European people, and may also be relevant to the origins of the Indus Valley Civilisation. R1a shows a strong correlation with Indo-European languages of Southern and Western Asia and Central and Eastern Europe, being most prevalent in Eastern Europe, West Asia, South Asia and Central Asia. In Europe, Z282 is prevalent particularly while in Asia Z93 dominates. The connection between Y-DNA R-M17 and the spread of Indo-European languages was first noted by T. Zerjal and colleagues in 1999.


Phylogeny of G2a and Kartvelian languages


the geography of the lineage coincides with the distribution of languages


Paternal lineage J2 originates from the area where Hurro-Urartian languages were spoken in Bronze Age

Paternal lineage J2 originates from the area where Hurro-Urartian languages were spoken in Bronze Age. These languages are related to Vainakh and Daghestanian languages (Diakonoff and Starostin, 1988) spoken by people of predominantly J (J2+J1) origin.(3)

Paternal lineage O2a1 originates from the area where Austroasiatic languages were spoken

This family tree is consistent with recent studies of migration of Y-Chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95. However, the dates obtained from by Zhivotovsky method DNA studies are several times older than that given by linguists.(6) The route map of the people with haplogroup O2a1-M95, speaking this language can be seen in this link.(7) Other geneticists criticise the Zhivotovsky method.


Paternal lineage N1c originates from the area where Uralic languages were spoken

The characteristic genetic marker of Uralic-speaking peoples is haplogroup N1c-Tat (Y-DNA). Samoyedic peoples mainly have more N1b-P43 than N1c.(8) Haplogroup N originated in the northern part of China in 20,000 -25,000 years BP(9) and spread to north Eurasia, through Siberia to Northern Europe. Subgroup N1c1 is frequently seen in Finno-Ugric people, N1c2 in Samoyedic peoples. In addition, haplogroup Z (mtDNA), found with low frequency in Saami, Finns, and Siberians, is related to the migration of Uralic peoples. 


Paternal lineage E1b1a originates from the area where Niger-Congo languages were spoken

the M2 mutation was present in the ancestors of the Niger-Congo populations at an early stage and was subsequently involved in the spread of the language phylum; furthermore, mainly the E1b1a subhaplogroups E1b1a7a and E1b1a8 are implicated in the Bantu expansion. However, some portions of Africa remain understudied; only when these lacunae have been filled will it be possible to come to more definitive insights into the prehistory of this area.(10)


Paternal lineage A3b1-M51 originates from the area where Khoisan languages were spoken

Both mtDNA and Y-chromosome studies revealed that the mtDNA lineages (L0d and L0k, found  at  frequencies  of  74%  and  14%,  respectively) and  Y-chromosome  haplogroups (haplogroup  A  found  at  frequencies  of  34%)  in  the  Khoe-San  are  among  the  oldest lineages  that  have  survived  in  the  human  population  and  retained  in  this  group  at appreciable  frequencies.  However,  differences  in  frequencies  and  distribution  of  sub-haplogroups  of  the  major  mtDNA  and  Y-chromosome  haplogroups  suggest  that  the different Khoe-San groups have over the years diverged from an ancestral parental group and  acquired  their  own  unique  history.  Consequently,  these  findings  caution  against  a haphazard grouping of populations or a pooling of groups into a single group. (11)


Paternal lineage A3b2 originates from the area where Nilo-Saharan languages were spoken

A3b2 is mostly frequent among Nilo-Saharan populations from Sudan and Kenya, suggesting an association between the two, as recently proposed by Gomes et al, 2010. The initial date for the spread of this linguistic phylum, approximately 18,000 years ago (Blench, 2006), is in accordance with the estimated within-clade A3b2 date (18.9 Kya, CI 7.6-41.9 Kya).(12)


Paternal lineage O3 originates from the area where Sino-Tibetan languages were spoken

 Haplogroup O3 is the dominant paternal haplogroup in Sino-Tibetan populations (Shi et al., 2005), and therefore, is more informative in revealing the history of those populations than other haplogroups. There are around 20 subhaplogroupswithin haplogroup O3, among which O3-M117 occursat the highest frequency (Yan et al., 2011). In fact, O3-M117 is the only O3 subhaplogroup appearing in certain Sino-Tibetan populations from the border of Yunnan and Tibet (Fig. 2).For this reason, it is crucial to analyze haplogroup O3-M117 Y chromosomes when studying the genetic origin of Sino-Tibetan populations, especially those from southeastern Tibet(the eastern Himalayas).A potential place for the origin of all Sino-Tibetan pop-ulations is the region east of Tibet, as we found the highestSTR diversity of O3-M117 in the Qiang population fromthis area. The ancient tales of the Han Chinese clearly trace
 their origin to the Qiang people (Wang, 1994). Archaeo-logical findings also suggested that the Yangshao Culture of approximately 7000 years ago had its origin in the region of the Qiang people (Liu, 2005; Zhao et al., 2011). For membersof the Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily, most populationshad their previous names of “certain branches of Qiang,”which was also recorded in ancient Chinese books (Ge, 1985).Therefore, our genetic evidence supports data from historicaland archaeological studies that indicate the Qiang group tobe the origin of the Sino-Tibetan expansion.(13)


Paternal lineage C‐M347 originates from the area where Australian languages were spoken

The proportion of non‐indigenous Y‐chromosomes of assumed Eurasian origin was high, at 56%. Y lineages of indigenous Sahul origin belonged to haplogroups C‐M130*(xM8,M38,M217,M347) (1%), C‐M347 (19%), K‐M526*(xM147,P308,P79,P261,P256,M231,M175,M45,P202) (12%), S‐P308 (12%), and M‐M186 (0.9%). Haplogroups C‐M347, K‐M526*, and S‐P308 are Aboriginal Australian‐specific. Dating of C‐M347, K‐M526*, and S‐P308 indicates that all are at least 40,000 years old, confirming their long‐term presence in Australia. Haplogroup C‐M347 comprised at least three sub‐haplogroups: C‐DYS390.1del, C‐M210, and the unresolved paragroup C‐M347*(xDYS390.1del,M210).(14)


Paternal lineage O3a2b2-N6 originates from the area where Austronesian languages were spoken

our genetic studies provide a highly revised phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 and a clear phylogeographic pattern of its sublineages. We determined that sublineage O3a2b2a2b-B451 is unique to Austronesian populations, while close relatives of this sublineage were mainly found in North China or locations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia. We proposed that sublineage O3a2b2a2b-B451 represents the genetic connection between ancestors of Austronesian populations and ancient populations in North China, where the domestication of foxtail millet occurred about 11,000 years ago. Ancient DNA studies and additional genotyping of newly discovered polymorphisms and whole Y-chromosome sequencing of modern O3a2b2-N6 samples will clarify the dispersal and expansion patterns of Austronesian populations in the future.(15)

M-M106 broadly correlates with the distribution of Papuan languages (16)

Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3b-F1756, an important paternal lineage in Altaic-speaking populations

We propose that haplogroup C3b-F1756 and its sub-branches may be candidates for the paternal lineages of the ancient Donghu, Xian-Bei, and Shi-Wei tribes who were once the dominant populations in the eastern part of the Mongolian Plateau before the expansion of the Mongols;(17)

References

(1) Ehret C, Keita SO, Newman P (December 2004). "The origins of Afroasiatic". Science. 306 (5702): 1680; author reply 1680. doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1680c. PMID 15576591.

(2) Chiaroni J, King RJ, Myres NM, Henn BM, Ducourneau A, Mitchell MJ, Boetsch G, Sheikha I, Lin AA, Nik-Ahd M, Ahmad J, Lattanzi F, Herrera RJ, Ibrahim ME, Brody A, Semino O, Kivisild T, Underhill PA (March 2010). "The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (3): 348–53. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.166. PMC 2987219 Freely accessible. PMID 19826455.


(5) glottolog Catalogue of languages and families

(6) Kumar, Vikrant; et al. (2007). "Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austroasiatic populations" (PDF). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7 (1): 47. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-47. PMC 1851701. PMID 17389048.

(7) Kumar, Vikrant; Reddy, Arimanda NS; Babu, Jagedeesh P.; Rao, Tipirisetti N.; Langstieh, Banrida T.; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Reddy, Alla G.; Singh, Lalji; Reddy, Battini M. (2007). "Figure". BMC Evolutionary Biology. www.biomedcentral.com. 7: 47. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-47. PMC 1851701. PMID 17389048. Retrieved 11 March 2012.

(8) Tambets, Kristiina et al. 2004, The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes

(9) Shi H, Qi X, Zhong H, Peng Y, Zhang X, et al. (2013) Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin and Paleolithic Northward Migration of Y-chromosome Haplogroup N. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66102. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066102

(10)  Cesare de Filippo, Chiara Barbieri, Mark Whitten, Sununguko Wata Mpoloka, Ellen Drofn Gunnarsdóttir, Koen Bostoen, Terry Nyambe, Klaus Beyer, Henning Schreiber, Peter de Knijff, Donata Luiselli, Mark Stoneking, Brigitte Pakendorf; Y-Chromosomal Variation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights Into the History of Niger-Congo Groups, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 28, Issue 3, 1 March 2011, Pages 1255–1269, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msq312

(11)  Carina Maria Schlebusch Genetic variation in Khoisan-speaking populations from southern Africa Johannesburg, 2010

(12) Capelli and all 2011 Early Y chromosome lineages in Africa: the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens

(13) L. Kang et al. "Y-chromosome O3 haplogroup diversity in Sino-Tibetan populations reveals two migration routes into the eastern Himalayas"  Annals of human genetics, 2012

(14) Nano Nagle and al. Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y‐chromosomes  30 October 2015
(15) Wei LH, Yan S, Teo YY, et al. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 reveals patrilineal traces of Austronesian populations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175080. Published 2017 Apr 5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175080

(16) Cox, Murray P.; Mirazón Lahr, Marta (2006). "Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands". American Journal of Human Biology. 18 (1): 35–50. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20459. PMID 16378340.
(17) Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 1 June 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.60
Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroups and languages family Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroups and languages family Reviewed by bsm on June 16, 2018 Rating: 5

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